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This signifies that the animal is free from the genetic recessive disease Complex Vertebral Malformation. This disease has been linked to embryonic deaths, abortions and still-births.

This shows that the animal has been tested free from Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD). BLAD is again a genetic recessive disease which stops an animal's immune system from repairing itself, making the carriers extremely susceptible to a host of infections for example pneumonia.

Milk, Fat & Protein
The Predicted Transmitting Abilities (PTA's) are the most commonly used indices around the globe for comparing the production traits of sires.

For Example:
+300 kg milk
+24.1 kg Fat
+20 kg Protein
Rel: 79%

The daughters of this sire would be expected to give on average, in their first lactation, an extra 300 kg of milk, 24.1 kg fat and 20 kg protein, compared to daughters of a sire who had a PTA of 0 kg Milk, 0 kg Fat and 0 kg Protein.

The reliability figure is a reflection of the number of daughters that have contributed to the bull's proof and their distribution across herds. When published for bulls, reliability ranges from 50% to 99%. The higher the reliability, the more likely the proof is to be an accurate reflection of the bull's true transmitting ability.

Note: PTA's from differing countries should not be directly compared as the genetic bases will be different.

Profit Index (PIN) is an economic index derived from the production PTA. It is expressed as a financial value in £s and reflects the expected increase in revenue per lactation for each daughter, relative to an animal with a PIN of zero.

Profitable Life Index (PLI) represents the financial improvement an animal is predicted to pass on to its daughters in its lifetime. Traits included are kg milk, fat and protein, lifespan, fertility, somatic cell counts, udder conformation and locomotion. Independent research shows for each £1 increase in a cow’s PLI there is a £4.21 increase in margin results.

Linear Pattern
It is not a measure of the sire's own type, but is calculated from the linear scores of daughters and how far from the breed ideal the daughters score in comparison to their dams and contemporaries for each trait.

The figures are expressed on a scale of around -3 to +3, with both extremes denoting a likelihood of movement. A few exceptional animals will fall outside this range. These figures are known as standard deviations and indicate how far the animal is from breed average.

Fertility Index
The fertility index is a guide to the fertility of daughters in a UK herd. As a rough guideline, the scale ranges from -20 to +20, with the higher values being better. Every +1 increase is predicted to reduce calving interval by half a day.

The proof will read either Non-Improver for negative values or Improver for positive values.

The lifespan value is measured by actual daughter survival and from certain type traits including feet and legs composite, mammary composite and Somatic Cell Count. The scale ranges from -1 to +1 with higher values being better. The proof will read either Non-Improver for negative values, or Improver for those above breed average. A value of +0.5 means the daughters off that bull are expected to last 0.5 lactations longer than those from a bull with a value of +0.

Calving Ease
Calving ease is a prediction of how easy a calf by this sire will be born. The scale runs from -3 to +3. The proof will read, +0.3 or higher as Easy, -0.3 up to +0.3 as Average and any below -0.3 are classed as Harder.

Milking Speed
The scale runs between -3 and +3, with negative numbers being slower to milk and positive numbers faster. The proof will read, below -0.5 as Below Average, -0.5 to +0.5 as Average and over +0.5 as Fast.

Temperament is assessed on all of a sire’s daughters that are included in a proof. The scale runs between -3 and +3 with below -0.5 reading Below Average, -0.5 to +0.5 Average and over +0.5 Excellent.

Somatic Cell Count
SCC is a measure of a bull’s daughters predicted average Somatic Cell score across her lactation. In general the scale goes from -25 through to +25, with the lower numbers indicating the lower cell scores.

The proof will read Improver for those below zero and Non-Improver for bulls with values above zero.

Brachyspina (BY)
This is often referred to as BY. It can cause abortion and stillbirths, shortened spinal cord, long legs and abnormal organs which potentially has a large negative impact on fertility. It is found in about 6% of the Holstein population and it is when two copies of this allele are inherited we see serious or fatal consequences in the resulting embryo. Bulls which have tested positive for this have ‘BYC’ after the name.

Recently USDA announced the discovery of three Holstein haplotypes and three Jersey Haplotypes that appear to cause embryo loss when they exist in the homozygous state. The three haplotypes discovered have not been directly observed and the exact genetic or biological cause is unknown. Because of this, they have been given simple names of Holstein Haplotype 1 (HH1), Holstein Haplotype 2 (HH2) and Holstein Haplotype 3 (HH3), Or JH1, JH2 or JH3 to represent Jersey Haplotypes. These haplotypes appear to have a recessive mode of inheritance where animals with zero or one copy of the hapoltype are completely normal. Those that inherit two copies of the haplotype are lost as embryos, most likely early in gestation.

Kappa Casein
Kappa Casein indicates whether or not the bull has the preferred genes associated with milk protein yield and quality. These qualities are important parameters in the selection of breeding dairy cattle. There are several forms of Kappa Casein; A, B and E. Each variant is related to the renneting process of cheese-making. Rennin is produced by cows in the abomasums and is considered to be the most efficient protease for cheese making. The BB variant is particularly advantageous for the composition of milk protein yield. Studies show that cheddar cheese yield can be up to 8% higher than mozzarella up to 12% higher with BB milk.

BB - The preferred result for cheese production
AB and BE - intermediate result for cheese production

Beta Casein A2A2
Indicates that the sire carries the A2A2 gene associated with the Beta Casein protein. This A2A2 gene is reported to have health benefits when consumed including a lower chance of heart disease, diabetes and autism as well as aiding digestion.